It is in such a context that information on household income and expenditures is required. It is therefore essential that study samples adequately represent the gradient of wealth observed in the pastoral group under study.
Care should be taken in selecting sample villages and camps so that results can be generalisable to a known population type.
An intervention may call for culling of nonproductive and old animals from herds and flocks. Household income and expenditure items For designing the data collection formats background information is required on the nature of items that form the income and consumption baskets of the pastoral households to be studies as these vary from culture to culture.
Animals and their products are sold to provide cash. Even then villages and camps may be formed on the basis of social classes. Collection of households income and expenditure data In addition to producing milk and meat for their own consumption, pastoral households engage in a variety of transactions involving livestock, livestock products, cash and other items such as crops, handicrafts etc.
The income items include: They are given or lent to kin and friends to strengthen social ties and ensure long-term security. In that case a stratification of the population into wealth categories is essential Bee Grandin for a detailed discussion of wealth effects and a rapid method of wealth ranking.
First, it quantifies the wealth status of the sample household. What is the implication of this for the security and viability of different groups of pastoral households rich, poor? Given such a stratification of the target population, the available resources for collecting data and the time-frame and nature of the study, standard sampling procedures can be employed to determine the size of the sample and choosing them Cochran, He analysed the barter terms of trade between pastoral products sold by pastoralists and those they purchase by constructing a pastoral cost of living index.
They may be similarly received. In addition to standardising the format for enumeration, it is also a good device to facilitate recall by respondents. This may not present a problem in situations where a whole village or encampment or target population is studied as done by the ILCA teams in Mali and Kaduna.
The implications of this for different groups of households poor, rich needs to be assessed. Testing and evaluating the impact of interventions as well as assessing the welfare of pastoralists require benchmark data on income and expenditure patterns of different groups of pastoral households.
Second, it provides the basic population data to perform per capita computations without which meaningful comparative analysis cannot be made. He concluded that by the early s their terms of trade had deteriorated and had "led the pastoral economy into a precarious position".
In order to determine the entire household budget, income and expenditure studies should be designed in such a way as to include not only cash income and expenditures but also these important transactions. Here care should be taken so that animals owned by the household but which are away from the main herd or flock at the time of the inventory are included.
In situations where the coverage in area is more extensive one has to resort to sampling the population as done by the ILCA teams in Kenya and Ethiopia. This information is vital for two reasons.
What needs of pastoral households can be manipulated to provide incentives for culling? Usually, the quantities of these transactions are known and their values can be determined by using prices the items would have attracted had they been sold.
A very good example is given by Swift for Somali pastoralists. Despite this, interventions are frequently proposed which call for increased cash expenditures.
Animals not owned by the household but borrowed from others should be identified and recorded as such. Animals may be exchanged for social reasons or to increase the productive capacity of herds and flocks.
Will there be enough labour and if so will sufficient food be available to sustain the energy requirements of increased effort? Sampling the target population In any society the most important factor that influences patterns of household income and expenditure is the wealth status of the household.perak state additional mathematics project work teacher’s guide perak state education department.
JOHOR EDUCATION DEPARTMENT MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK The Household Expenditure Survey (HES) was first conducted in the year / Beginning /94 it was carried out at an interval of five years and the recent survey was undertaken in / ~3~ BY TWC @ ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK INTRODUCTION The Household Expenditure Survey (HES) was the first conducted in the year / demand for data from the survey has increased and it is now used for several purposes.4/4(27).
Household income and expenditure items For designing the data collection formats background information is required on the nature of items that form the income and consumption baskets of the pastoral households to.
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Share; Like VIMALAN, O-Level Student The Household Expenditure Survey (HES) was the first conducted in the year / Additional mathematics project Nabila Syuhada. Additional Mathematics Project. Jun 04, · Editor's Note: As most of the SPM students have already submitted the form five add math project work to their teachers, we compiled a list of sample model answers / solutions (contoh model jawapan) below to serve as the references for next year students looking for SPM Form 5 Additional Mathematics (Add Math) Project Work / Kerja Status: Resolved.Download