Adolescence and adulthood

While children that grow up in nice suburban communities are not exposed to bad environments they are more likely to participate in activities that can benefit their identity and contribute to a more successful identity development.

In contrast, though both sexes experience an increase in body fat, the increase is much more significant for girls.

Those who experience negative outcomes find it hard to resolve conflicts occurring in succeeding stages. Emotional Development Teenagers are thought to be extremely moody due to the influx of secondary sex hormones.

Next Adolescence is the time between childhood and adulthood - between the ages of 12 to 18 -- that is marked by growth and change, and physical and emotional development.

Adolescents are much better able than children to understand that people do not have complete control over their mental activity. Due to their increased intellectual capacity, teenagers begin to develop very idealistic and sometimes unrealistic views.

Changes in secondary sex characteristics include every change that is not directly related to sexual reproduction. Thus, it is during the adolescence-adulthood transition that individuals acquire the type of wisdom that is associated with age.

This model has been contested, and alternate ideas have been explored in recent years. Through experience outside the family circle, they learn that rules they were taught as absolute are in fact relativistic. Adolescence is marked in red at top right.

Early maturing boys are usually taller and stronger than their friends. How to Write a Summary of an Article? Developing and maintaining identity in adolescent years is a difficult task due to multiple factors such as family life, environment, and social status.

Elder formulated several descriptive principles of adolescent development. Eventual casual examinations explain that adults vary enormously from adolescents in the kind of paths taken in life. According to him adolescents typically under go a period of identity diffusion which encompasses strong feelings of uncernity.

It is a period of crucial decision making about their lives. Development in the limbic system plays an important role in determining rewards and punishments and processing emotional experience and social information. For example, girls tend to reduce their physical activity in preadolescence [48] [49] and may receive inadequate nutrition from diets that often lack important nutrients, such as iron.

Research shows that relationships have the largest affect over the social development of an individual. Improvements are seen in both working memory and long-term memory. Many mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, occur for the first time during adolescence.

Stanley Hall The formal study of adolescent psychology began with the publication of G. Frequently, the increase in fat for girls happens in their years just before puberty. Research also indicates that baseline sensation seeking may affect risk-taking behavior throughout the lifespan.

Bridges to Adolescence and adulthood. The final stage in is the negative identity which is characterized by a snobbish or a scornful hostility towards the duties offered as proper and desirable by ones family and community. Some theorists believe that there are many different possible developmental paths one could take, and that the specific path an individual follows may be determined by their sex, orientation, and when they reached the onset of puberty.

Cambridge University Press Kroger, J. Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormonestissue responsiveness or obesity. The second stage, identity confusion, tends to occur a few years later.

Erikson refers these two extremities as stagnation versus generativity. They begin to differentiate between rules instituted out of common sense—not touching a hot stove—and those that are based on culturally-relative standards codes of etiquette, not dating until a certain agea delineation that younger children do not make.

Metacognition A third gain in cognitive ability involves thinking about thinking itself, a process referred to as metacognition.

What is adolescence?

Data collection began in and continued untilallowing the researchers to gather longitudinal data on the individuals that extended past adolescence into adulthood.

However, research has shown that adolescents seem to give more weight to rewards, particularly social rewards, than do adults. This is the first time individuals can truly make their own decisions, which also makes this a sensitive period.

However, adolescents find it hard to accomplish all this because of the on going rapid social and biological changes which are equally disturbing in the process of drawing decisions about life Kroger,p. It begins with the onset of old age and focus is on humankind. Self-concept The idea of self-concept is known as the ability of a person to have opinions and beliefs that are defined confidently, consistent and stable.Adolescence and Adulthood The effects of variation Variations in the pace of development lead to complex outcomes.

In some respects, those who mature early tend to have an advant. Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages fifteen to seventeen; and late adolescence, ages eighteen to twenty-one.

Teenagers experience physical, cognitive, social and emotional changes in the passage to adulthood. Although teenagers view themselves as grown up, they have yet to make the dramatic changes necessary to become mature adults.

While much growth occurs, the teenage years do not have to be a tumultuous time. Adolescence can be defined as a transional stage that encompasses changes in the mental and physical domains of human development which occur between childhood and adulthood.

This transition is composed of social, biological and psychological changes.


Adolescence typically describes the years between ages 13 and 19 and can be considered the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood. However, the physical and psychological changes that.

Adolescence and adulthood
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