Under the vassals were the peasants or serfs. Italy was dominated by city-statesmany of which were nominally part of the Holy Roman Empireand were ruled by wealthy aristocrats like the Medicisor in some cases, by the pope. As monarchies centralized their power as the Middle Ages progressed, nobles tried to maintain their own authority.
Large Gothic cathedrals of extraordinary artistic and architectural intricacy were constructed throughout Europe, including Canterbury Cathedral in England, Cologne Cathedral in Germany and Chartres Cathedral in France called the "epitome of the first great awakening in European civilisation" by Kenneth Clark .
Inthe last Islamic stronghold, Granadafell, and Iberia was divided between the Christian kingdoms of Spain and Portugal.
Rise of Western empires: Philosophy in the High Middle Ages focused on religious topics. Skellig Michael, also known as Great Skellig, is a steep rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean about These events led to the so-called scientific revolutionwhich emphasized experimentation.
However, in the 12th century the works of Aristotle were reintroduced to the West, which resulted in a new school of inquiry known as scholasticismwhich emphasized scientific observation.
Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks.
Michelangelo carved his masterpiece David from marble between and The Book of Kells. The nobles gave land to vassalswho served as knights to defend their monarch or noble.
They were famed for their martial spirit and Christian piety. At first, the English conquered half of France and seemed likely to win the war, until the French were rallied by a peasant girl, who would later become a saint, Joan of Arc. Universities flourished, mining of coal commenced, and crucial technological advances such as the lockwhich enabled sail ships to reach the thriving Belgian city of Bruges via canals, and the deep sea ship guided by magnetic compass and rudder were invented.
Barons forced King John of England to sign the Magna Carta laying early foundations for the evolution of constitutional monarchy. Antarctica — The last continent to be discovered, and the outlet for much Imperial ambition, until it was realised that the remoteness of the continent made a settlement impossible.
This, in turn helped begin a cultural movement in the West known as the Renaissancewhich began in Italy. They quickly adopted the Romance language of the land they settled off, their dialect becoming known as Normanan important literary language.
Bitter early weather hampered German attempt to reach Moscow In the cold, German soldiers died and guns did not fire Came within 20 miles of Moscow, but failed to reach it Siege of Leningrad also failed, lasting 2. Hundred Years War — An extremely protracted conflict between England and France lasting from to After the war, France gained all of Normandy excluding the city of Calaiswhich it gained in High Middle Ages Holy Roman Empire in Germany and central Europe, established in survives until Feudalism — Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
University — A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe.
The Dominican and Franciscan Orders were founded, which emphasized poverty and spirituality. Plantagenet kings first ruled the Kingdom of England in the 12th century. Humanism was an important development to emerge from the Renaissance. Europe was overwhelmed by the outbreak of bubonic plagueprobably brought to Europe by the Mongols.
The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly years, between and After the Fall of Romethe papacy served as a source of authority and continuity. The Portuguese immediately looked to expand outward sending expeditions to explore the coasts of Africa and engage in trade with the mostly Muslim powers on the Indian Oceanmaking Portugal wealthy.Western Civilization II: to the Present Price: $ The Western Civ II exam covers European history from the mid-seventeenth century through the.
Chapter World War II: Western Civilization in the Balance.
MP3 Chapter Summaries The Legacy of World War II; The Legacy of World War II; WWII was the most destructive and murderous war in history; Estimates of the. Start studying Western Civilizations: World War II. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. History of Western civilization.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. This article may be too long to Most Western nations were heavily involved in the First and Second World Wars and protracted Cold War.
World War II saw Fascism defeated in Europe. History Western Civilization II has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of Western civilization, a record of the development of human civilization beginning in Battle of Britain – The Battle of Britain is the name given to the World War II air campaign waged by the German Air Force against the United Kingdom during the.Download